Toronto Geological Discussion Group



Upcoming events

    • 27 Sep 2016
    • 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM
    • 2nd Floor, 20 Toronto St
    • 44

    Ontario Geological Survey Geoscience Programs Update

    The presentation will describe the Ontario Geological Survey (OGS) geoscience program and explain how geoscience projects are selected and implemented; highlight some recent OGS activities and accomplishments across the province; and describe future geoscience activities as part of the OGS 5-year project plan.

    The OGS was founded in 1891 and is celebrating its 125th anniversary in 2016.   The OGS is based in Sudbury and in 8 district offices across the province and is a Branch of the Mines & Minerals Division of the Ministry of Northern Development & Mines.  The OGS is responsible for documenting and publishing data about Ontario’s geology and has published nearly 14,000 geoscience products including over 10,000 geoscience maps.


    The OGS conducts field-based investigations to define and understand geological processes and Earth resources to inform policy development and decisions related to: a) economic development of minerals and metals, energy, groundwater and aggregate; b) land-use planning; c) the environment; d) natural hazards; e) public health and safety; f) infrastructure; and g) mitigating the impact of climate change.  OGS collaborates with other organizations to create a robust, modern and accurate provincial geoscience database. The OGS provides public access to these data as the steward of Ontario’s public geoscience data and information.


    OGS activities are grouped around 3 core functions delivered by 3 business units: 1) Earth Resources & Geoscience Mapping Section = geoscience mapping; 2) Geoservices Section = geoservices based on analyses of inorganic materials; cartographic, editorial and publication services; a library and archives; and 3) Resident Geologist Program = local area expertise that includes inventorying, assessing and marketing Ontario’s Earth resource potential.


    Jack Parker, Acting Director, Ontario Geological Survey Branch

    Ministry of Northern Development & Mines

    Jack started his career in geology in 1977 when he was hired as a junior field assistant with the OGS.  After that summer he was hooked on rocks and worked for various junior mining companies during the summers while completing his BSc at Lakehead University.  He was a project geologist with a uranium exploration company based in Saskatoon in the early 1980s and he worked on gold properties near Hemlo.  In 1984 he began working as a Mineral Commodities Geologist for the OGS in the Resident Geologist Office in Kenora and moved to the Red Lake Resident Geologist Office in 1989.  During the early 1990s he wrote a Prospecting Manual that is still used today to teach prospecting courses across Ontario.  In 1993 he relocated to Sudbury to work as a Metallogenic and Precambrian geologist with the OGS.  Most of Jack’s work has been in Northwestern Ontario and the Far North of Ontario.  Jack became a Manager with the OGS in 2001.  Jack has also served as Councillor for Northeastern Ontario in the Elected Council of the Association of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario (APGO) from 2003 to 2007 and participated on several APGO committees.  He has practiced geoscience continuously for 36 years and is currently Acting Director of the OGS with responsibility for strategic direction and leadership of the OGS and delivery of scientific and technical geoscience information in Ontario.

    • 18 Oct 2016
    • 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM
    • 2nd Floor, 20 Toronto St
    • 92

    Spectral, multispectral, hyperspectral: What works, what could work, and what will not work

    Across the earth sciences, spectroscopy is the main tool for identifying and characterizing the composition of minerals, rocks, glasses, liquids, and gases. Infrared spectroscopy is one amongst many spectral methods that were developed in a non-geological discipline, adapted to planetary exploration, and subsequently adopted by exploration geologists as a powerful tool to identify and map alteration zones associated with hydrothermal mineral deposits.

    Satellite borne remote sensing infrared spectral systems include multispectral and hyperspectral sensors that measure surface reflectance and involve minimal to null ground penetration. Therefore, they have limited applicability in areas that are covered by vegetation, lakes, glacial till, or other unconsolidated deposits. Satellite borne systems are also subject to illumination effects that limit their applicability in northerly latitudes, and to atmospheric effects that mask the central portion of their spectra.

    Hyperspectral field portable infrared spectrometers are mainstream in drilling programs, where they are used to obtain rapid routine identification of the most frequently encountered alteration minerals. Less commonly, infrared spectroscopy data is used to define clay and sericite compositional zones that are indicative of specific hydrothermal fluid acidities and temperatures, allowing for the indirect identification of structural corridors that channeled high temperature hydrothermal fluids, as well as of redox boundaries.

    Recent advances in infrared spectroscopy have resulted in the development of portable instruments that operate in higher wavelength ranges than those currently utilized in mineral exploration. These instruments allow for the identification and in some cases for the compositional characterization of many primary and alteration silicate mineral species.

    Unconventional uses of infrared spectroscopy techniques applicable to mineral exploration include remote sensing mapping of modified vegetation reflectance patterns produced in areas of anomalous metal content, and laboratory-based mineral and major oxide quantification through multivariate calibration methods using whole rock geochemistry.

    Potential infrared spectroscopy applications that warrant further research include the identification of radioactive damage in minerals through the use of crystallinity indices obtained from portable hyperspectral instruments, and in vegetation through the use of remote sensing techniques, and the quantification of silicification and de-silicification.


    Anna Fonseca, MSc, PGeo, SRK Consulting (Canada)

    Anna Fonseca earned a bachelor’s degree in geology and Russian language from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in 1993 and a master’s of science degree in economic geology from the University of British Columbia in 1998. During the first decade of her career, she conducted regional bedrock and structural mapping in Canada, Russia, US, and Mexico for government surveys and the mineral exploration industry. During her second field decade, she shifted her focus to alteration mapping and expanded her geographical range to include the Andes, Europe and Turkey. 

    In 2012 she joined SRK’s structural geology group in Toronto and has since focused on combining structural and alteration geology for exploration vectoring and geotechnical applications. She teaches applied structural-alteration geology courses in four and a half languages to industry, universities, geological surveys, and mineral exploration conferences, both in the field and in the classroom.

Past events

13 Sep 2016 Structural Controls on Magmatic Ni-Cu-PGM Sulfide at Wallbridge Mining’s Parkin Offset Dyke Deposit in Sudbury, Ontario
17 May 2016 Transition Metals PGM-Ni-Cu Discoveries: Sunday Lake and Aer-Kidd, a Separation of 700 Kilometers and 700 Million Years
04 May 2016 Integrating multiple lines of evidence to define the exploration target range for the Castelo de Sonhos Paleo-placer gold Project, Brazil
19 Apr 2016 Mini-Symposium - The Big Bang: Understanding the Magmatic Controls of Mineral Deposits
05 Apr 2016 Alturas – A Recent High Sulphidation Gold Discovery on the El Indio Belt, Chile
18 Feb 2016 Geology and Mineralization of the New Afton alkalic porphyry Cu-Au deposit
10 Feb 2016 Murray Brook Polymetallic VHMS Deposit, Bathurst, New Brunswick
26 Jan 2016 From Sadiola to the recently discovered Boto Gold Deposit, 25 years of gold mining and exploration discovery in West Africa
15 Dec 2015 Mining Project Development Experience – Where Do Things Go Wrong and Why
18 Nov 2015 Mini-Symposium – Abitibi Gold: The next 135 million ounces
02 Nov 2015 TerraX Minerals Inc.
20 Oct 2015 Recent Advances in Ocean Mining
29 Sep 2015 55 Zone - A new high grade gold mine on the Yaramoko Property, Burkina Faso
14 Sep 2015 The Arrow Uranium Zone, a Rapidly Emerging Discovery - NexGen Energy Ltd.
05 May 2015 Brucejack Project,B.C.
18 Apr 2015 Mini-Symposium – Working Smart: Using the downturn in the economy as an opportunity
31 Mar 2015 The (geochemical) Hitchhikers’ Guide to Magmatic Ni-Cu Prospectivity in a Greenstone Belt
03 Feb 2015 Amaruq: The early days of a significant gold discovery
20 Jan 2015 The Renard Diamond Project: 13 Years From Discovery, Now Under Construction
09 Dec 2014 Facts and Fallacies: a personal commentary on the last 45 years of uranium exploration and development in the Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan.
09 Dec 2014 Exploration for Deep VMS Ore Bodies: The Hudbay Lalor Case Study
19 Nov 2014 Mini-Symposium – Canada's Mineral Landscape: Aboriginal Rights and Related Issues
21 Oct 2014 The Geologic Framework and Potential for Deep Seated Deposits at the Superior Project, Ontario
07 Oct 2014 Hardrock Gold Project, Geraldton, Ontario: Structural and stratigraphic settings of the deposits
23 Sep 2014 Timing and Controls on Gold Mineralization in the Abitibi Greenstone Belt
15 Sep 2014 Deep Mineral Exploration - The Next Economic Geology Frontier
09 Sep 2014 The discovery of the Goldrush deposit, Cortez Camp, Nevada
13 May 2014 Alexkor and the Richtersveld Land Claim – A retrospective diamond mineral property valuation case study
29 Apr 2014 Advancing Canada's newest gold district: The Borden gold project
09 Apr 2014 Mini-Symposium – Mexico Exploration: Finding the Treasure of the Sierra Madre and more
18 Feb 2014 Geometallurgical Modelling of the Dumont Deposit
04 Feb 2014 The Pistol Bay Gold Project, Nunavut, Canada A new district of Archean gold deposits in a variety of rocks - not just iron formation!
21 Jan 2014 Deep Mining Exploration reveals Ancient Waters of the Precambrian Shield
10 Dec 2013 OSC Staff Notice 43-705: a fair reflection of the mining industry’s recent performance?
21 Nov 2013 Mini-Symposium – Applied Earth Modelling: Better Targeting Using 3D Exploration
05 Nov 2013 The Curraghinalt Orogenic Gold Deposit, Northern Ireland. A Pot of High Grade Gold at the End of the Rainbow
22 Oct 2013 A multidisciplinary approach to the Attawapiskat kimberlite field: accelerating the discovery to production pipeline
01 Oct 2013 Discovery of the Mesel, Batu Hijau, and Elang Deposits, Indonesia: Successful Greenfields Exploration
17 Sep 2013 Exploring and Developing the Hope Bay Project: Approaches Both Old and New
28 May 2013 Do Recent Changes to Ontario’s Mining Act Make the Province a Less Competitive Jurisdiction to Explore?
14 May 2013 Sabodala Gold Mine, Senegal
30 Apr 2013 Key Elements for Mineral Exploration Success: An Example from Neves-Corvo, Portugal
16 Apr 2013 The Rovina Valley Au-Cu Project, Golden Quadrilateral, Romania: New Discoveries in an Old Mining District
02 Apr 2013 Economic geology of black shale – hosted vanadium mineralization in Xiushui County, Jiangxi Province, southeastern China
26 Mar 2013 Mini-Symposium – Laterites or Laterwrongs: Making the Pieces Fit
19 Feb 2013 Anna Fonseca – Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to Alteration Mapping
05 Feb 2013 Joe Hinzer – Challenging Mineral Property Evaluations
22 Jan 2013 Jean-Francois Ravenelle – Geology of the Eleonore Gold Deposit
04 Dec 2012 Jeremy Niemi – The Romero gold discovery, Dominican Republic
08 Nov 2012 Mini-Symposium: The future of mining and exploration in Canada
23 Oct 2012 John Ryder – Paleoplacers – Are Archean/Proterozoic diamondiferous placers/paleoplacers potentially new sources of diamond supply to meet the looming diamond shortage?
09 Oct 2012 Warren Bates – Geology, alteration and Geophysics an the Manfo Gold Project, Sefwi Belt, Ghana
25 Sep 2012 Brent Cook – Exploration vs. Finance and the Low Odds of Success
11 Sep 2012 Hernan Ugalde – Geological Modeling of Geophysical Data: Beyond the 3D inversion black box, v2.0
18 Apr 2012 Hamid Mumin – Iron Oxide Copper-Gold Deposits in Genetic Context
03 Apr 2012 Sally Pehrsson – A new evolution and architecture for the Trans Hudson orogeny and its use in targeting for world class VMS, Nickel and Gold deposits
20 Mar 2012 Jim Mungall – Formation of iron oxide and phosphate tephra of the El Laco volcano, Chile from an Fe-P-O-S magma.
21 Feb 2012 Sergio Cattalani – Discovery and Development of the Canadian Malartic Bulk-Tonnage Gold Deposit, Southern Abitibi, Quebec, Canada.
07 Feb 2012 Workshop and Mini-Symposium on the Complexities of Grade Estimation
24 Jan 2012 Xiaodong Zhou – The Use and Limitations of Aster Satellite Imagery for Exploration

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