The Toronto Geological Discussion Group



Upcoming events

    • 31 Mar 2015
    • 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM
    • Twenty Toronto Street, Toronto, ON M5C 2B8
    • 0
    Registration is closed

    The (geochemical) Hitchhikers’ Guide to Magmatic Ni-Cu Prospectivity in a Greenstone Belt

    The (geochemical) Hitchhikers’ Guide to Magmatic Ni-Cu Prospectivity in a Greenstone Belt

    Petri Peltonen1, Hannu Huhma2, Frank Santaguida1 and Steve Beresford1

    1) First Quantum Minerals Exploration

    2) Geological Survey of Finland Isotope Laboratory


    Oxford defines “hitch-hike”as travel by getting free lifts in passing vehicles.


    Exploration geologists can travel quickly through greenstone belts using trace element and isotope geochemistry. While not exactly free, the amount of confidence gained through advanced geochemical analyses outweighs the costs of drilling in the wrong place looking for Ni-Cu-PGE deposits.

    The Central Lapland Greenstone Belt in northern Finland developed over a 600 Ma period in which several episodes of rifting and extension are recorded by the widespread occurrence of mafic-ultramafic igneous complexes and dykes. Age dating of these intrusions yields an almost continuous spectrum of ages between 1.8 Ga and 2.6 Ga; however, 6 distinct magmatic episodes are evident.  One in particular, at 2.05 Ga, seems to have been the most favourable for saturation of magmatic sulphides and formation of economic Ni-Cu-PGE deposits.

    Trace element geochemistry of the 2.05 Ga mafic-ultramafic intrusions further discriminates barren versus productive magmatic centres. The Sm-Nd range for the Kevitsa deposit is unique (εNd = from -3.4 to -6.4) compared to the un-mineralised intrusions which give initial εNd values close to zero.  Age data are not available from the host rocks of the Sakatti deposit, but apparent similarities with Kevitsa suggest that it may well belong to the same age group. The Sm-Nd range (εNd (2 Ga) from -3.4 to -6.4) is remarkably similar to Kevitsa implying a significantly enriched component in the magma.

    The 2.05 Ga event represents a major metallogenic episode.  In the Northern Fennoscandia Shield, crustal contamination was critical for magmas to reach sulphide saturation and produce magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulphides.  Uncontaminated intrusions remain barren. Tracking this event using geochemical methods has been a useful guide in Finland for focussing advanced exploration. Globally, other circa 2.05 Ga igneous complexes hosting major Ni-Cu-PGE resources includes Bushveld, Molopo Farms, and Uitkomst in South Africa, as well as Voronezh (Russia) and the Booth River Complex (Canada).


    Bio: Frank Santaguida, First Quantum

    Frank Santaguida is a Principal Exploration Geologist for First Quantum Minerals Ltd. who operates metallic mines and development projects in Central America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Australia. The exploration group is active in greenfields to near-mine projects worldwide.

    • 16 Apr 2015
    • 12:30 PM - 6:30 PM
    • Hart House at U of T, 7 Hart House Circle, Toronto, M5S 3H3
    • 52

    The TGDG is pleased to present a mini-symposium on Working Smart: Using the downturn in the economy as an opportunity This mini-symposium will feature a variety of exciting talks from industry leaders, and will be followed by a networking event. A portion of this event will be broadcast online FREE of charge to those unable to attend in person. Please see event details below (or download the mini-symposium flyer).


    Pre-registration is required for this symposium. Cost is $80 and free for students (registration and student card required). Please complete your registration online to secure your spot. Space is limited, so book early! Please contact us if you have any issues registering online.

    Note that registration closes April 8. There will be no refunds for no shows, to receive a refund the TGDG needs to be notified prior to April 3. If space remains, registration will be available at the door at a surcharge of $20.


    A portion of this event (TBA) will be broadcast online FREE of charge. Check back in at a closer date for details on registering for the online broadcast. This event broadcast is made possible through Geosoft.



    12:30 pm  Registration 
    1:00 pm  Welcome and Introduction
    1:10 pm  Lori Wickert (Remote Sensing Consultant) - Ground Truthing & Spectral Geology Validation in Mineral Exploration – Challenges & Opportunities?
    1:45 pm  Lynda Bloom (President, Analytical Solutions) – Better Target Ranking:
    Effective Use of Multi-element Geochemical Data
    2:20 pm  Mike McClelland (Director, Land Tenure & Information, Cameco Exploration) – Harvest Time, Reaping the Rewards of Data Organization
    2:55 pm  Coffee break
    3:15 pm  Hernan Ugalde (Senior Consulting Geophysicist, PGW) & Iris Lenauer (Structural Geology Consultant, SRK Consulting), – Old Data and New Tools - Getting New Geology Insights from Geophysical Data, Beyond Purple Blobs
    3:50 pm Catharine Farrow (CEO, TMAC Resources) - TMAC's Hope Bay Belt
    Path to Production: Creating Opportunity in Challenging Times


    4:25 pm Alan Galley (Exploration Director, CMIC) - FCMIC-NSERC Footprints Project: Using Data Integration for Better Ore System Definition and Targeting

    4:45 pm  Tim Dobush (CEO, Geosoft) – The Frank Arnott Collaborative
    6.30 pm
    Networking and refreshments at the Hart House

    You can also download the mini-symposium flyer and help share this opportunity with your friends and colleagues!

    We look forward to seeing you April 16th. Please contact us if you have any questions.  

    • 05 May 2015
    • 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM
    • Twenty Toronto Street, Toronto, ON M5C 2B8
    • 60

    Brucejack Project,B.C.

    Bio: Bob Quartermain, Pretium Resources 

Past events

03 Feb 2015 Amaruq: The early days of a significant gold discovery
20 Jan 2015 The Renard Diamond Project: 13 Years From Discovery, Now Under Construction
09 Dec 2014 Facts and Fallacies: a personal commentary on the last 45 years of uranium exploration and development in the Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan.
09 Dec 2014 Exploration for Deep VMS Ore Bodies: The Hudbay Lalor Case Study
19 Nov 2014 Mini-Symposium – Canada's Mineral Landscape: Aboriginal Rights and Related Issues
21 Oct 2014 The Geologic Framework and Potential for Deep Seated Deposits at the Superior Project, Ontario
07 Oct 2014 Hardrock Gold Project, Geraldton, Ontario: Structural and stratigraphic settings of the deposits
23 Sep 2014 Timing and Controls on Gold Mineralization in the Abitibi Greenstone Belt
15 Sep 2014 Deep Mineral Exploration - The Next Economic Geology Frontier
09 Sep 2014 The discovery of the Goldrush deposit, Cortez Camp, Nevada
13 May 2014 Alexkor and the Richtersveld Land Claim – A retrospective diamond mineral property valuation case study
29 Apr 2014 Advancing Canada's newest gold district: The Borden gold project
09 Apr 2014 Mini-Symposium – Mexico Exploration: Finding the Treasure of the Sierra Madre and more
18 Feb 2014 Geometallurgical Modelling of the Dumont Deposit
04 Feb 2014 The Pistol Bay Gold Project, Nunavut, Canada A new district of Archean gold deposits in a variety of rocks - not just iron formation!
21 Jan 2014 Deep Mining Exploration reveals Ancient Waters of the Precambrian Shield
10 Dec 2013 OSC Staff Notice 43-705: a fair reflection of the mining industry’s recent performance?
21 Nov 2013 Mini-Symposium – Applied Earth Modelling: Better Targeting Using 3D Exploration
05 Nov 2013 The Curraghinalt Orogenic Gold Deposit, Northern Ireland. A Pot of High Grade Gold at the End of the Rainbow
22 Oct 2013 A multidisciplinary approach to the Attawapiskat kimberlite field: accelerating the discovery to production pipeline
01 Oct 2013 Discovery of the Mesel, Batu Hijau, and Elang Deposits, Indonesia: Successful Greenfields Exploration
17 Sep 2013 Exploring and Developing the Hope Bay Project: Approaches Both Old and New
28 May 2013 Do Recent Changes to Ontario’s Mining Act Make the Province a Less Competitive Jurisdiction to Explore?
14 May 2013 Sabodala Gold Mine, Senegal
30 Apr 2013 Key Elements for Mineral Exploration Success: An Example from Neves-Corvo, Portugal
16 Apr 2013 The Rovina Valley Au-Cu Project, Golden Quadrilateral, Romania: New Discoveries in an Old Mining District
02 Apr 2013 Economic geology of black shale – hosted vanadium mineralization in Xiushui County, Jiangxi Province, southeastern China
26 Mar 2013 Mini-Symposium – Laterites or Laterwrongs: Making the Pieces Fit
19 Feb 2013 Anna Fonseca – Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to Alteration Mapping
05 Feb 2013 Joe Hinzer – Challenging Mineral Property Evaluations
22 Jan 2013 Jean-Francois Ravenelle – Geology of the Eleonore Gold Deposit
04 Dec 2012 Jeremy Niemi – The Romero gold discovery, Dominican Republic
08 Nov 2012 Mini-Symposium: The future of mining and exploration in Canada
23 Oct 2012 John Ryder – Paleoplacers – Are Archean/Proterozoic diamondiferous placers/paleoplacers potentially new sources of diamond supply to meet the looming diamond shortage?
09 Oct 2012 Warren Bates – Geology, alteration and Geophysics an the Manfo Gold Project, Sefwi Belt, Ghana
25 Sep 2012 Brent Cook – Exploration vs. Finance and the Low Odds of Success
11 Sep 2012 Hernan Ugalde – Geological Modeling of Geophysical Data: Beyond the 3D inversion black box, v2.0
18 Apr 2012 Hamid Mumin – Iron Oxide Copper-Gold Deposits in Genetic Context
03 Apr 2012 Sally Pehrsson – A new evolution and architecture for the Trans Hudson orogeny and its use in targeting for world class VMS, Nickel and Gold deposits
20 Mar 2012 Jim Mungall – Formation of iron oxide and phosphate tephra of the El Laco volcano, Chile from an Fe-P-O-S magma.
21 Feb 2012 Sergio Cattalani – Discovery and Development of the Canadian Malartic Bulk-Tonnage Gold Deposit, Southern Abitibi, Quebec, Canada.
07 Feb 2012 Workshop and Mini-Symposium on the Complexities of Grade Estimation
24 Jan 2012 Xiaodong Zhou – The Use and Limitations of Aster Satellite Imagery for Exploration

 © Copyright 2013 Toronto Geological Discussion Group

Powered by Wild Apricot Membership Software